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Unit Biotechnology, Virus, and Microbial Diversity

Page history last edited by Shu-Yee Chen 6 years, 7 months ago

Unit: Biotechnology, Virus, and Microbial Diversity





Big Idea:

Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes. 


Enduring Understanding:

1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core processes and features that evolved and are widely distributed among organisms today.

1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are graphical representations of evolutionary history that can be tested. 

1.C.3: Populations of organisms continues to evolve. 

2.D.1: All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities, and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy.

3.B.1: Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to cell specialization.

3.C.1: Changes in genotype can results in changes in phenotype.

 ...Actually, you can pretty much link any objectives to this unit!!  


Required Reading:

  • Campbell: Chapter 19, 20




Learning Objectives:By the end of this unit, you should be able to.... 


Describe the basic structural components of a virus and explain what characteristics viruses possesses and lacks to be considered living. (Ch 19.1)


Explain how virus utilize host cells to replicate and how phages can replicate through lytic or lysogenic cycle. (Ch 19. 2) 


Explain how retrovirus works and give an example of retrovirus. (Ch 19.2)


Describe the importance of reverse transcriptase and how it is used in retrovirus and biotechnology fields. (Ch 19 & 20)


Explain how vaccine works in defending against certain viruses. (Ch 19.3)


Explain the significance of genetic mutations in viral evolution and what it means in terms of viral outbreak and treatment. (Ch 19.3)


Compare and contrast bacteria, virus, viroids and prions. (Ch 19.3)


Explain the significance of DNA technology and list some possible product and organisms from these techniques. (Ch 20.1) 


Use a model to illustrate how restriction enzyme works in cutting DNA into fragments (making sticky ends) for things like recombinant DNA for genetic engineering. (Ch 20.1)


Identify the levels of chromosome packing. (Ch 20.1)


Explain what are cloning vectors and how they work, and what problems can arise in eukaryotic cell cloning (Ch 20.1)

12. Describe how PCR work in detail. (Ch 20.1)
13. Explain how each of the following technique/components works and what it is used for: Gel electrophoresis, Southern blotting, RFLPs, gene sequencing, Northern blotting, in situ hybridization, RT-PCR, DNA microarray, SNPs. (Ch 20.2)
14. Be familiar with why stem cells are important in organismal cloning. (Ch 20.3)
15. Explain how applications of DNA technology can affect our lives and discuss the ethical implication of DNA technology. (Ch 20.4)





Below is a list of vocabularyterms used in this unit. By the end of the unit, you will be able to write a working definition of each term and correctly use each term. 


virus viral envelope capsid
host vector phage
lytic cycle lysogenic cycle retrovirus
reverse transcriptase provirus vaccine
viroid prion gene cloning
genetic engineering restriction enzyme  restriction sites
sticky ends DNA ligase recombinant DNA
cloning vectors plasmids bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)
PCR cDNA nucleic acid hybridization
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gel electrophoresis Southern blotting
restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) Northern blotting in situ hybridization
RT-PCR DNA microarrays single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
stem cell gene therapy short tandem repeats (STRs)






Virus, Microbial Diversity and Disease


Extra Worksheets/Notes from past years/review/challenge materials: 


Supplement Material/Websites:




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